全世代型への転換と消費税増税で高齢者の負担増加

2018年10月15日に安倍晋三首相は臨時閣議で、来年に行われる消費税増税の目的は「全世代型社会保障制度への転換」と「財政健全化」の両立と説明した。

今回打ち出した全世代型社会保障改革だが、「年金受給開始年齢の引き上げ」「医療費の見直し」など全世代というわりには、高齢者へ特化したしわ寄せが懸念されており、財政健全化も進んでいない。

◇ 消費税増税の元々の使い道は「社会保障費」に充てる

2012年に消費税増税の使い道は、「社会保障と税の一体改革」で決定された。焦点となった消費税増税の使い道は、少子高齢化の影響により年々膨らんでいく社会保障費に充て、国の借金を減らし、将来世代の負担をなくすものだった。

当初は「社会保障(1)対 借金返済(4)」という比率だったのが、昨年10月の衆院選で安倍首相は、増税分の使い道を、教育無償化などに充てると表明した。そのため、「政策経費(1)対 借金返済(1)」の構図へ。この決定により、高齢者3経費(基礎年金・老人医療・介護)だったのが、社会保障4経費(年金・医療・介護・子育て)と変わってしまった。

◇ 高齢者向けと子育て世代支援に向けた政策

消費税増税と経済界の負担により、2兆円規模の財源を生み出し、教育無償化や高齢者向けの社会保障などを組み合わせた政策を行う見込みだ。具体的には、幼児教育および保育の無償化と子育て世代の支援を充実をさせるものだ。

一方、高齢者向けの政策は、企業側に雇用継続の義務付けの年齢を65歳から引き上げを行い、働ける高齢者には若者世代同様の社会保障の「支え側」になってもらう考えだ。さらに、現在は「原則65歳」からが年金受給開始年齢だが、財務省は支給開始年齢の一律引き上げを検討している。

◇ 高齢者に負担が増える政策に

上記の政策を見てわかるように、高齢者の社会保障費の抑制を狙うものとなっている。しかし消費税増税により生活費の圧迫、年金受給開始年齢が伸びれば体と生活が不安になるなど、今後ますます高齢者に負担が増えていくことだろう。


299"全世代型への転換と消費税増税で高齢者の負担増加"についての考え

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